Comprehension Outcomes


Comprehension is an active and complex cognitive process in which students construct meaning through reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Comprehension is integral to all learning as students interact with a variety of challenging and rigorous information sources and experiences.

The West Irondequoit Central School District Comprehension Outcomes, which organize comprehension as: Information and Understanding, Literary Response and Expression, and Critical Analysis and Evaluation, apply to the continuum of instruction from kindergarten through grade twelve. In every curricular area students are expected to develop critical thinking skills including analysis, synthesis, application, evaluation, and reflection on both the information and their learning processes.

Speaking and writing assume a primary role in development of comprehension, along with reading and listening. Discourse among students is fundamental in the development of understanding and is embedded in each outcome area. As with discourse, writing is utilized to construct, clarify, and extend meaning, rather than used only as a means to assess understanding. Reflection is a critical component of each area, deepening students' understanding.

A comprehension companion document accompanies the outcomes, identifying dynamic processes for accessing information and extending understanding. These recursive and interactive processes provide a common thread of student strategies, instructional techniques, and formative assessments applicable to all three outcome areas. Instructional techniques engage students in learning experiences that result in the development of critical thinking skills, as well as comprehension strategies. Formative assessments provide teachers and students with information regarding acquisition of these skills and strategies. Throughout this process, the teacher's role is consistently that of facilitator in a student-centered classroom.

Through the use of comprehension strategies, students develop life-long thinking skills necessary to achieve the expectations of the outcomes. Strategies are selected and used recursively throughout the learning process - before, during, and after each learning experience. These strategies, however, are not limited to a single phase of the process, but are used cyclically throughout learning. When students are engaged in these processes, fluency results. Fluency is a bridge to comprehension.

Aligned with the New York State English Language Arts Standards and Indicators, the West Irondequoit Central School District Comprehension Outcomes are both an integral part of our English Language Arts Curriculum and all curricular areas. Teaching and celebrating literacy in all its forms is the charge of every educator, and becoming a literate citizen is the right of every student. These outcomes and companion document are a path to that goal.


Outcome 1:  Information and Understanding Outcome 2:  Literary Response and Expression Outcome 3:  Critical Analysis and Evaluation
As listeners, speakers, readers and writers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships and concepts; make generalizations by using knowledge generated from oral, written and electronic sources.

Sources may include, but are not limited to:  informational texts, audio, media, oral presentations, professional journals, newspapers, magazines; charts, graphs and diagrams; as well as other expository and imaginative sources.


As listeners, speakers, readers and writers, students will comprehend, interpret and critique imaginative texts in every medium, making connections to relevant personal experiences and knowledge to understand the text, while recognizing its social, cultural, and/or historical features.

Sources may include, but are not limited to:  imaginative texts such as novels, short stories, poetry, historical fiction, memoir, fables and folktales, satire, plays, biographies, and auto-biographies.



As listeners, speakers, readers and writers, students will analyze and evaluate experiences, ideas, information and issues using evaluative criteria from a variety of perspectives and recognize the difference in evaluations based on varied sets of criteria.

Sources for ideas, information, issues, and experiences may include, but are not limited to:  literature; informational texts and textbooks; public documents and political speeches; advertisements; book/movie reviews, critiques, and editorials; technical manuals and professional journals.

Students will:


  • Gather, interpret, and analyze extensive, authentic, complex, and diverse sources/genres to develop and extend understanding of the information and ideas.
  • Construct meaningful and well-developed connections to relevant prior knowledge and experiences that facilitate the development of further insights.
Students will:


  • Evaluate literary merit based on understanding of genre, literary elements and techniques, literary tradition, and/or historical period.
  • Synthesize personal thoughts with the perspectives, ideas, and questions voiced by others in order to construct meaning and extend knowledge and understanding by engaging in discourse.
Students will:


  • Assess the quality and dependability of texts and other sources using criteria related to genre, subject area, purpose, and critical perspectives specific to an area of study.
  • Interpret the author/authors' perspective and purpose to evaluate the validity of the arguments presented.


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