Industrialization of the United States 1865-1920

Agrarian Protests - Granger Movement Agrarian Protests - Populism Andrew Carnegie and Carnegie Steel Changing Patterns of Immigration
Changing Role of Women Child Labor Development of Big Business Expanding International Markets
Expanding National Markets Growth of cities Henry Ford Industrial Growth 1860-1910
Influence of Photography Inventions John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil Labor Organizations
Labor Strikes Merchandising Changes Nativist Reaction to New Immigration New Communications Systems
New Energy Sources Political Corruption, 1865-1900 Radical Fringe Railroad Problems
Relations Between Government and Big Business Robber Barons Status of Former Slaves Supreme Court Interpretations of the 14th amendment
Transportation William Jennings Bryan and Rural America Work Ethic  

 

Agrarian Protests - Granger Movement

Granger Movement - brief overview from Columbia Encyclopedia.
Granger Movement - hypertext from Britannica Online.
The Granger Revolution - describes the origins of the Granger Movement.
Agrarian Distress and the Rise of Populism - times and events that spurred the Granger Movement and Populism.
The Order of Patrons of Husbandry -- The National Grange - links to history and purpose of the National Grange.
The Emergence of Modern America, 1877-1917 - PowerPoint presentations from Ohio State University, History 563 covering the emergence of modern America, Agrarian Protest, child labor reform, and immigration. 
Agrarian Protests - Populism
U.S. History Curriculum: 1890s Populism - check out the first two Learning Objectives: Understanding the status of agriculture at the end of the nineteenth century and Understand the Populist Movement.
Agrarian Distress and the Rise of Populism - times and events that spurred the Granger Movement and Populism.
How Ya' Gonna' Keep 'Em Down on the Farm?: The Rise of Populism - lecture notes form American History 102. 
The Emergence of Modern America, 1877-1917 - PowerPoint presentations from Ohio State University, History 563 covering the emergence of modern America, Agrarian Protest, child labor reform, and immigration. 
Andrew Carnegie and Carnegie Steel
The Richest Man in the World: Andrew Carnegie - website to accompany a multi-part television biography of Andrew Carnegie by PBS as part of their series, "The American Experience."
An Outline of American History: Growth and Transformation - a look at Carnegie and the era of steel.
Andrew Carnegie - a look at the man and his impact from Spartacus Education Online.
The Homestead Strike 1892 - a look at the town and the strike.
Andrew Carnegie Links - listing of links on Carnegie. 
Changing Patterns of Immigration
The Changing Character of Immigration - describes the changing immigrant population.
The Advent of Modern America (1865 to 1920) - Scroll down to Section E : New immigration.
The American Immigration Home Page - describes how immigrants were treated, and why they decided to come to America.
Immigration in the Gilded Age and Progressive Era - article from Humanities and Social Sciences Online.
Immigration: 1900-1920 - immigration patterns from The University of California, Riverside.
The Gilded Age and Progressive Era: A Guide to Resources & Research on the Web - scroll down to The New Immigration and Urban America for a listing of links.
Americans in the Raw - describes the immigration process and what immigrants brought with them.
Foreign Immigrants in Industrial America - lecture notes from American History 102.
The Emergence of Modern America, 1877-1917 - PowerPoint presentations from Ohio State University, History 563 covering the emergence of modern America, Agrarian Protest, child labor reform, and immigration. 
The Gilded Age and Progressive Era: A Guide to Resources & Research on the Web - see the Immigration links. 

 

Changing Role of Women
Women, Feminism and Sex in Progressive America - lecture notes from American History 102. 
Work 19th Century - list of link from Women's History as About.com.
Review Essay: U.S. Women's Herstory (1865-1920) - issues discussed include: Family, The Industrial Age, Women's Organizations, Some Women in U.S. History, and Women's Political Strife. 
WOMEN AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS IN THE U.S., 1830-1930 - listing of archives and webographies in Women's History. 
Bread and Roses, Women, Work, and the Vote - links dealing with women's history. 
The Gilded Age and Progressive Era: A Guide to Resources & Research on the Web - see the Women, Reform, and Suffrage links. 
Immigrants, Urbanization and Women Reformers - explains the factors the women reformers. 

 

Child Labor
Child Labor - overview of the social issue, crusaders, and legislation; hypertexted, so click on links.
The History Place: Child Labor - child labor in America 1908-1912, photographs by Lewis W. Hine with the original photo captions. 
Children of the Coal Fields: Classroom or Breaker? - be sure to check out Part I and Part II.
The Campaign to End Child Labor - the Progressive Era campaign to end child labor, with photographs, political cartoons, poems, essays and books by Jane Addams, Edwin Markham, Scott Nearing, Mother Jones, Felix Adler, Lewis Hine, and others.
Child Labor and Child Labor Reform in American History -
The Emergence of Modern America, 1877-1917 - PowerPoint presentations from Ohio State University, History 563 covering the emergence of modern America, Agrarian Protest, child labor reform, and immigration. 

 

Development of Big Business
The Advent of Modern America (1865 to 1920) - listing of links including section B. Industrial expansion, and section C. Modern business. 
Industrial Expansion 1860-1890 - explains the factors the allowed for expansion. 
The Social Philosophy of American Businessmen - lecture notes from American History 102.
The Gilded Age and Progressive Era: A Guide to Resources & Research on the Web - see the Business and Industry links. 

 

Expanding International Markets
OVERSEAS EXPANSION (18651916) - brief synopsis of a  expansion. 
The Policemen of the World - lecture notes from American History 102. 
Age of Imperialism - history of US expansionism in Asia, the Pacific, and the Americas.
Industrial Expansion 1860-1890 - explains the factors the allowed for expansion. 

 

Expanding National Markets
The Advent of Modern America (1865 to 1920) - listing of links including section B. Industrial expansion, and section C. Modern business. 
Industrial Expansion 1860-1890 - explains the factors that allowed for expansion. 

 

Growth of Cities
The Advent of Modern America (1865 to 1920)- Scroll down to Section E : Life in growing American cities.
The Gilded Age and Progressive Era: A Guide to Resources & Research on the Web- scroll down to The New Immigration and Urban America for a listing of links.
The Era of Expansion and Reform: Cities and Problems Multiply- essay from An Outline of American History.
Immigrants, Urbanization and Women Reformers - explains the factors the allowed for the growth of cities. 

 

Henry Ford
The Life of Henry Ford: Online Exhibit - all about the man and his company.
Henry Ford: Why I Favor Five Days' Work With Six Days' Pay - interview from 1926.
Driving Force: Henry Ford - former Chrysler executive Lee Iacocca tells the story of his meeting with Ford, and describes the man's vision and accomplishments. 
Henry Ford and the Model T - chronicles the development and mass production of the Model T or "Tin Lizzie" and it's virtual monopoly of the car market in 1908. 
Ford Motor Company: Heritage - a look at the company and the man behind the company.
Age of Industry -  links arranged by topic; including Transportation.
Links to Sites about Henry Ford -  listing of links about Ford. 
Industrial Growth, 1860-1910
The Advent of Modern America (1865 to 1920) - listing of links including section B. Industrial expansion, and section C. Modern business. 
Industrial Expansion 1860-1890 - explains the factors the allowed for expansion. 

 

Influence of Photography
George Eastman
George Eastman - an encyclopedic look at Eastman and his contributions; be sure to check out links, especially Photography: History and Development.
George Eastman ... The Man - background of George Eastman by Kodak.
George Eastman and His Development of Kodak Equipment - by U of R students.
Inventor George Eastman - facts about George Eastman, inventor of the first film in roll form and the Kodak camera in 1884; be sure to check out the links.

 

Jacob Riis
How The Other Half Lives - includes introduction and notes, as well as info about Riis.
How the Other Half Lives - hypertext version with illustrations.
Masters of Photography: Jacob Riis - brief look at Riis and his work from The Encyclopedia of
Photography.
Jacob A. Riis: Photographer and Reformer - brief look at Riis and the impact of his works from the
Museum of the City of New York with links to his collection there.
Highlighting the Housing Crisis and Homelessness in New York During the 1890s and 1980s - looks at the impact Riis' photography (along with Reed and Morton) had on educating the public to the   plight of the poor.
The Jacob A. Riis Collection - discusses Riis' photographs and intent.
The American Experience: Jacob Riis - PBS takes a brief look at the man, his mission, and his impact.
Inventions
The Industrial Revolution (1700 - Present) -
The Advent of Modern America (1865 to 1920)- Scroll down to Section B : Industrial expansion; inventions, resources, government support.
Inventors Hall of Fame- Information on inventors including Bell, Eastman, and Ford.
Age of Industry- links to inventions in agriculture, transportation, communication, and general technology. 
Industrial Expansion 1860-1890 - explains the factors the allowed for expansion. 

 

John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil
Rockefeller, John D - from Encyclopedia Britannica.
John D Rockfeller and the Standard Oil Company - discover how he came to dominate the
oil industry for 50 years.
John D. and Standard Oil - a look at the growth of the trust.
American Experience: The Rockefellers - PBS looks at Ida Tarbell's impact on Rockefeller's empire.
The Ghost of John D. Rockefeller - Foundation for Economic Education looks at Standard Oil and events leading to break-up of the trust in comparison to Microsoft.
Witch-Hunting for Robber Barons: The Standard Oil Story - monopoly or not?--a libertarian's view.
The Myth of Predatory Pricing - policy analysis refuting claim Standard Oil set predatory pricing.
"Strategies of John D. Rockfeller and the Standard Oil Company 1863-1911," by
Francois Micheloud - exhaustive site covering Rockefeller,  The Oil Industry, Rockefeller's commercial practices, and  a Chronology of the Standard Oil Company. 

 

Labor Organizations
Encyclopaedia of USA History: Trade Unions - scroll down to Trade Union Organizations.
American Labor Unions - covers the American Federation of Labor, Industrial and Trade Organization, and Union Recognition and the Union Shop. 
A Short History of American Labor - brief history of more than 100 years of the modem trade union movement in the United States. 
A Labor History Timeline - find the events within your time frame and you have new keywords to research.
American Labor History - start with Post-Civil War Social Conflicts and continue through your time frame.
The Advent of Modern America (1865 to 1920) - Scroll down to Section D: Organizing 19th century labor; aims, strikes, and obstacles.
Labor and the Workers' Search for Power - lecture notes from American History 102.

 

Labor Strikes
A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers - provides overview and outline of major events, including strikes.
Encyclopaedia of USA History: Trade Unions - scroll down to Events & Issues.
American Labor Unions - scroll down to Strikes and Violence
The Anthracite Coal Strike 1902 - links from The Ohio State University Department of History.
The Advent of Modern America (1865 to 1920)- Scroll down to Section D: Organizing 19th century labor; aims, strikes, and obstacles.
Strike at Homestead Mill- description from PBS.
The Gilded Age and Progressive Era: A Guide to Resources & Research on the Web - see the Labor links. 

 

Merchandising Changes
Sears, Roebuck and Co. - history of the development of retail giant Sears.
Industrial Expansion 1860-1890 - explains the factors the allowed for expansion. 

 

Nativist Reaction to New Immigration
The Advent of Modern America (1865 to 1920)- Scroll down to Section E. New immigration and migration; life in growing American cities.
Industrial Expansion 1860-1890 - explains the factors the allowed for expansion. 

 

New Communication Systems
The Invention of the Telephone - detailed multi-paged site that traces the evolution of the telephone. 
The Telegraph - overview of invention of the telegraph. 
Age of Industry -  links arranged by topic; including Communication.
The Advent of Modern America (1865 to 1920)- Scroll down to Section B.  Industrial expansion; inventions, resources, government support.

 

New Energy Sources
The Advent of Modern America (1865 to 1920) - Scroll down to Section B : Industrial expansion; inventions, resources, government support.
Coal Mining in the Gilded Age and Progressive Era - Collection of pictures and text from Ohio State University.
Industrial Expansion 1860-1890 - overview of expansion causes.

 

Political Corruption, 1865-1900
Tammany Hall - About.com's look at Tammany Hall with many links
Conversations with Plunkitt of Tammany Hall - Project Gutenburg, online transcripts and ebooks
Political Cartoons - depiction's of politicians and political ideals in the 19th century
Political Machines - Britannica Online
The Politics of Corruption - a brief outline from Houghton Mifflin. 
What was the legacy of urban political leaders from the late 1800's to early 1900's? - notes from SocialStudiesHelp.com.
Urban Political Machines: Taking Stock -  pros and cons perspective from the American Political Science Association.
"Boss Tweed" - biographical information
The Tweed Ring - be sure to click on all the links for the "full picture" of the players, the issues, and Nast's impact.

 

Radical Fringe
Introduction to 19th-Century Socialism - long article relating the history of the movement
Du Bois, W(illiam) E(dward) B(urghardt) - career, Black Nationalism, and Socialism.
The African Americans Search for Truth and Knowledge - DuBois' response to the times.
Railroad Problems
Railroads: The American Experience - story of the building of the first railroad link connecting the East to the West. 
Excerpts from The Octopus by Frank Norris - excerpts along with interpretation of The Octopus
Railroads, The First Big Business - a look at how railroads came to be "big business;" be sure to check out all the links that apply.
The Iron Horse: The Impact of the Railroads on 19th Century American Society - follow the links.
Transportation and the expansion of America - specifically focused on how the railroads contributed to the expansion of America. 
RAILROAD NETWORK DEVELOPMENT and ECONOMIC INTEGRATION - brief lecture notes highlighting some problems caused by railroads.

 

Relations Between Government and Big Business
The Social Philosophy of American Businessmen - lecture notes from American History 102.

 

Robber Barons
Businessmen and "That Creature" the Corporation - lecture notes from American History 102.
The Robber Barons Series - discussion of the wealth concentration of the Robber Barons.

 

 ROBBER BARONS & THEIR METHODS
John D. Rockefeller & Standard Oil
Rockefeller, John D - from Encyclopedia Britannica.
John D Rockfeller and the Standard Oil Company - discover how he came to dominate the
oil industry for 50 years.
John D. and Standard Oil - a look at the growth of the trust.
American Experience: The Rockefellers - PBS looks at Ida Tarbell's impact on Rockefeller's empire.
The Ghost of John D. Rockefeller - Foundation for Economic Education looks at Standard Oil
and events leading to break-up of the trust in comparison to Microsoft.
Witch-Hunting for Robber Barons: The Standard Oil Story - monopoly or not?--a libertarian's view.
Andrew Carnegie & Carnegie Steel
The Richest Man in the World: Andrew Carnegie - website to accompany a multi-part television biography of Andrew Carnegie by PBS as part of their series, "The American Experience."
An Outline of American History: Growth and Transformation - a look at Carnegie and the era of steel.
Andrew Carnegie - a look at the man and his impact from Spartacus Education Online.
The Homestead Strike 1892 - a look at the town and the strike.

 

Status of Former Slaves
The Great Migration: Blacks in White America - lecture notes from American History 102. 
African American Religion in the 19th century - interesting look at the development of religious beliefs and practices
Africana - search the site using keywords "life 1860-", click on Reconstruction the Unfinished Revolution. There are MANY other links for you to explore- make sure you check out the links on the right side bar 
Race and Place: An African American Community in the Jim Crow South
African American Women - about.com provides many links to women and their accomplishments
The Emergence of Modern America, 1877-1917 - PowerPoint presentations from Ohio State University, History 563 covering the emergence of modern America, Agrarian Protest, child labor reform, immigration, and race relations.

 

Supreme Court Interpretations of the 14th Amendment
Minorities, the Poor & Ending Corporate Rule - discussion of the 1886 Supreme Court decision in Santa Clara v. Southern Pacific Railroad case that granted corporations civil rights under the 14th Amendment.
Teaching History Online: 14th Amendment - brief explanation with links.

 

Transportation
Age of Industry -  links arranged by topic; including Transportation.
The Advent of Modern America (1865 to 1920) - Scroll down to Section B : Industrial expansion; inventions, resources, government support.
Railroads, The First Big Business - a look at how railroads came to be "big business;" be sure to check out all the links that apply.
Once Upon America
The Iron Horse: The Impact of the Railroads on 19th Century American Society - follow the links.
Transportation and the Expansion of America - specifically focused on how the railroads contributed to the expansion of America. 
Railroads: The American Experience - Story of the building of the first railroad link connecting the East to the West.

 

William Jennings Bryan and Rural America
"Cross Of Gold" Speech - text of this famous and most effective speech ever delivered at a notional party convention.
William Jennings Bryan - brief biography with links to related topics
William Jennings Bryan - the man and his career from HistoryLink.com.
William Jennings Bryan Recognition Project - a chronicle of his life and accomplishments
Bryan, Religion, and the Silver Question - be sure to click on the gold standard versus free silver hyperlink.
American Monetary Institute - a fascinating look at the agrarian protest and Bryan paralleled in The Wizard of Oz.
Recording of William Jennings Bryan - "An Ideal Republic Immortality"

 

Work Ethic
Horatio Alger, Jr. Frequently Asked Questions - summary information on Alger.
The Advent of Modern America (1865 to 1920) - Scroll down to Section C. Modern business; corporation, banking, stock exchange; the Gospel of Wealth.
Horatio Alger: Overview - article from The Student Resource Center.
Horatio Alger: Biography - article from Britannica Online. 

 

                          Updated 11/02